Millenium Health recently published a report, Fentanyl in Focus: Perspectives on Polysubstance Use in 2022.

The report was broken up into three sections: (1) “A Snapshot of Recent Trends in Urine Drug Test Positivity and Fentanyl Co-Positivity in Substance Use Disorder Treatment Settings”; (2) “Gaining Perspective on Fentanyl Analogues: Current Landscape and New Frontiers to Explore”; and (3) “Polysubstance Use in the Fentanyl-Positive Population: The Bigger Picture”. A key finding from Section 1 was the increasing detection of fentanyl alongside cocaine, methamphetamine, heroin, and prescription opioids. Nationally, fentanyl is the most-detected drug, but the Western United States has seen the most significant rate of growth. In Section 2, the data revealed that over 60 percent of fentanyl-positive specimens were also positive for one of more fentanyl analogues, with 4-ANPP being the most common analogue. This could indicate that the use of illicitly manufactured fentanyl may be a form of polysubstance use. Geographical analysis also showed regional differences in the prevalence of certain fentanyl analogues. In Section 3, the data indicated that individuals with fentanyl-positive specimens were more likely to engage in polysubstance use in comparison to those with fentanyl-negative specimens. Researchers also found that given the regional differences, state and local data might be more significant to physicians than national data alone. An understanding of local trends is essential for the development of effective treatment plans.

Read the full report here.